At the 15th obstetric week (the methods for calculating the term - here), the stomach still grows and slightly rises. If you have a thin or medium build, any tight-fitting thing will emphasize your characteristic shape. During twin pregnancy, the stomach grows faster and becomes noticeable earlier.
Photo of the tummies:
Choose comfortable clothes for everyday wear that will not crush and rub anywhere. If you don’t want others to look at you, choose free things, use bright accents - brooches, earrings, neckerchiefs. Such accessories are distracting.
Emotional outbursts are replaced by calm. You get less and less annoyed. Some mothers at this time appear flushing activity. I don’t want to sit still, any plans constantly appear in my head - to go somewhere, to do something. Do not be afraid of your energy, but do not overwork.
At the fifteenth week, many mothers notice a gradual change in life views. The tricks of organizing family life, raising children and the safe bearing of a child are taking more and more thoughts.
- slight nasal congestion without fever and other signs of a cold,
- stool improvement (the uterus rises and puts less pressure on the intestines),
- light asphyxiation (the diaphragm is slightly squeezed by the raised uterus),
- discomfort in the coccyx when you sit (nerve endings signal stagnation of blood, change position or walk a bit)
- heartburn, flatulence,
- increased appetite
- nipple sensitivity may persist
- colostrum production
- sensitivity of teeth and gums (which means the baby needs calcium),
- skin pigmentation
- short leg cramps (due to lack of potassium and calcium).
Your blood volume is now 20% larger than before pregnancy. Because of this, the heart sometimes works with overloads, and then a little dizzy. If at the same time it seems to you that you are about to fall, be sure to tell your doctor. Do not be afraid of a slight loss of orientation.
Very rarely, residual effects of early toxicosis may persist. Find out here (about toxicosis) how to eliminate the latest outbreaks of nausea and other discomfort.
Has it become uncomfortable to sleep? Try to lie on your side more often, and put a small pillow under your stomach.
What do future mothers say?Some continue to complain of drowsiness. Others understand that they successfully avoided toxicosis. Some moms admit that they definitely go to children's goods stores and admire tiny clothes, bottles and rattles. It is difficult for many to watch melodrama films, it is impossible to avoid tears. All this is normal. The main thing is that nothing hurts and does not disturb.
What to look for
Slight pain at this time is common. Your body constantly works, gets tired and signals about it. Change your body position, if you have to sit, stretch, do a light workout. You have to stand a lot - let your legs rest when possible.
If your stomach or lower back really hurts, and does not ache lightly, tell your doctors. For severe pain and bloody smears, call an ambulance.
Normal vaginal discharge looks white or transparent, scanty, they do not have a pungent odor. There should be no burning and itching in the vagina and on the labia.
Personal video greetings from Santa Claus
Medical fact. A miscarriage and a frozen pregnancy are possible at any time. Be mindful of your feelings..
When will the baby start pushing?
According to the medical norm, if the pregnancy is first, fetal movements will begin to be felt at 20 weeks, in other cases - at 18.In very rare cases, thin moms can already feel the first weak movements. They are easily confused with the "vagaries" of their own digestion.
About the first stirring of the fetus, you must definitely inform the doctor, this information is entered into your exchange card. But before you tell the doctor the exact date, make sure that the baby is really hustling.
15 week of pregnancy
In the second trimester, most mothers bloom in front of their eyes. Toxicosis recedes, general health is being established, appetite is improving. In the article we learn what else is happening with the mother and baby at the 15th week of pregnancy, and also consider what tests are needed at this stage.
It is believed that if you bring the lamp on to your stomach, the baby will definitely react to the light. Believe it or not - decide for yourself. But imagine: you are lying in a bath with water, the bathtub is covered with a thick blanket, and a leather cover is still worn on top. Will the light pass through such a thickness?
The truth is that at the 15th week the baby’s eyes, although still closed, have all the necessary nerve endings. But to really see the baby will begin only after childbirth.
What else happens to the baby:
- ossification of the skeleton is the main task for which a lot of calcium is needed,
- the skin becomes denser, it is no longer so transparent,
- legs are actively growing,
- the shape of the ears is almost or finally determined,
- sebaceous and sweat glands ready to work,
- pituitary gland development continues
- the circulatory system is growing
- meanders form on the cerebral cortex,
- in boys, testosterone production begins (the sex hormones of girls are formed later),
- the first bile is produced
- kidneys work: removing amniotic fluid that the child swallows,
- all muscles are improved.
A tiny child is actively “training”, moving his arms, legs and fingers. These movements are controlled by motor reflexes of the brain. The baby can hear the surrounding sounds. A small heart pumps over twenty liters of blood every day.
Photo of the baby (this is how the fetus looks at the fifteenth week of pregnancy):
What happens to the fetus at 15 weeks gestation?
At the 15th week of pregnancy, the fetal length is about 15 cm, and the weight reaches 50-70 g. Its size can be compared with the size of an average orange.
At the 15th week of pregnancy, the corpus luteum has already completed its task. All functions to ensure the life of the unborn child begins to perform the placenta. Your child’s facial features have already acquired individuality, and with each passing week the baby becomes more and more like one of the parents. At week 15, the arms and legs continue to grow actively, now they are ahead of the head in speed of development, and very soon they will correspond to it in proportion. The legs are already growing faster than the handles, not like before. The kid often bends the arms at the elbows, and squeezes his fingers into fists. He actively moves not only the limbs, but he himself often turns over and changes his position in the woman’s tummy. Due to the active movements of the baby, the muscular system is strengthened. The process of ossification of the skeleton is in full swing, so the cartilage tissue will be replaced by bone.
Hair begins to appear on the head. The face is being improved, the eyes are approaching each other, eyebrows and cilia are visible. The kid opens and closes his mouth, yawns, smiles and already sucks a finger.
The cardiovascular system also does not stand still: there is an active development of blood vessels. Now, to each organ, blood flows through its own arteries. Through the thin skin of the baby, all the vessels are visible, which is why it becomes red.
The nervous system is also being improved. The organs are braided by nerves. The brain is gaining weight, gyrus and grooves deepen. The gall bladder regularly secretes bile. And the baby's bladder is regularly emptied into the amniotic fluid, the volume of which at 15 weeks is 100 ml.They are sterile and constantly updated: about 10 times a day. And red blood cells now, unlike the first weeks, are produced by bone marrow.
The baby is comfortably located in the fetal bladder in the mother’s tummy, which provides him with protection and nutrition. He is actively changing his position, and very soon the woman will be able to feel the tremors, but so far she does not feel anything, except that the sensations are like tickling.
Well-being of the woman
In the second trimester, which lasts from 14 to 26 weeks, the expectant mother is faced with new exciting sensations and experiences. First of all, the changes concern the cessation of toxicosis and the well-being of women. At this stage, hormonal fluctuations are not so strong, therefore, the mood of the pregnant woman is significantly increased.
In the absence of developmental pathologies in the fetus, experts recommend the girl to move more, to walk in the fresh air. Of course, power sports and intense physical activity are prohibited, but swimming and yoga are exactly what you need.
In some mothers, a rather rounded tummy is already visible at 15 weeks of gestation. Stirring is not yet heard, as the baby is still too small.
Follow the schedule that the doctor of the antenatal clinic will establish for you. Pass on all the tests that are prescribed to you on time. Checking the level of various hormones in your blood allows doctors to learn a lot: how well the fetus develops, whether there is a threat of miscarriage, and much more.
Depending on your individual characteristics (age, chronic illness) and well-being, the doctor may offer various examinations. A planned ultrasound is not performed at the fifteenth week. But if you are prescribed it, there is a tiny chance to find out the gender of the child (if a good device and an experienced doctor). In addition, the specialist will check the condition of the uterine membranes, the amount of amniotic fluid, and the location of the placenta. On the scanner screen, you can see how your baby is moving and how much he already looks like a little man.
Ultrasound at 15 weeks of gestation
An ultrasound of 15 weeks can also reveal problems with the ovaries. However, evaluating them is often difficult. Difficulties arise due to the fact that the uterus is enlarged and does not allow to determine the condition of neighboring organs. On ultrasound for 15 weeks, it is possible to assess the uniformity of the muscles of the uterus, where myomatous nodes are visualized. The muscle layer by this week of pregnancy should be thin, about 2-3 cm.
What happens in the body
Many women in this period are interested in where the uterus is now? The organ is located quite high and you can independently feel it in the lower abdomen (5-10 cm below the navel). Often at week 15, mothers notice the appearance of a pigment line running from the navel to the pubis. This should not be a concern, since it is considered a completely normal phenomenon, signaling the onset of pregnancy.
In this period, attention should be paid to the appearance of new moles on the body. Nevi appear during the bearing of a child quite often. If a fairly large birthmark is formed, a specialist consultation is needed to help determine the nature of education. The appearance of small moles should not bother a woman, because this process indicates the normal functioning of the hormonal system.
Fetus. 15th week development
Fetus 15th week of pregnancy
The 15th obstetric week of pregnancy is a period of active growth and development of the fetus.
The future baby can already be 10 to 14 cm long and weigh 50 to 75 g. An orange can be imagined to visualize the size of the fetus.
The development processes in the 15th obstetric week of pregnancy are gaining momentum.
Active brain formation continues. On its surface there are more and more grooves, which gradually turn into convolutions.
The cerebral cortex is activated.The number of neurons increases very quickly, and thanks to this process, the unborn baby already feels a lot:
If you shine on your stomach with a bright lamp during an ultrasound scan, you can see how quickly the fetus turns to the light source,
The main processes of hearing development have already been completed and the hearing aid picks up sounds coming from outside.
Scientists say that the baby already remembers the voice of mom and dad (if he is talking with his stomach).
After birth, the baby recognizes the people closest to him by voice,
The baby already has a swallowing reflex and taste buds on the tongue.
When mother eats sweets, the fetus begins to actively swallow amniotic fluid.
In addition to feelings, the fetus already has several important reflexes:
- suck a finger
- squeeze the handles into fists,
- to flinch
- to swallow,
- repel from the uterine wall if it feels under the leg.
At the 15th week of pregnancy (according to obstetric calculations), the pituitary gland most actively manifests itself in the brain: it releases hormones that promote and control the processes of growth and development of the whole body of the fetus.
The central nervous system continues to improve and enters the active phase, establishing contacts with the peripheral, improving the functioning of existing systems.
The musculoskeletal system continues to grow stronger during the 15th obstetric week of pregnancy.
The processes of replacement of bone cartilage tissue occur very slowly, therefore, they occupy the entire period of intrauterine development and several years after birth.
A pregnant woman needs to control her diet by consuming enough foods containing calcium and magnesium.
If micronutrients are not enough, the fetus will begin to take them from the reserves of the mother's body, which will affect the condition of the teeth, nails and hair.
In order for calcium and magnesium to be absorbed in sufficient quantities, you need to walk daily on the street, getting vitamin D from the sun.
In winter, you can consult a gynecologist about taking this vitamin in the form of drops or a multivitamin complex.
At the 15th week of pregnancy (according to obstetric calculations), active bone growth occurs.
As a result, by the end of the week, the fetal legs become significantly longer than the arms, the body proportions are as close as possible to the usual ones.
The main joints and bone joints at the current time are already formed, the fetus can unconsciously move them.
Due to the lack of subcutaneous fat, the fetus looks very thin. The process of skin transformation will begin very soon, but now the skin looks red and wrinkled, although less transparent than in previous weeks.
At the 15th obstetric week of pregnancy, the fetus continues to move actively through the uterus.
Due to this, muscles develop better and better, gradually forming movements and reflexes necessary after the birth of the baby
A lanugo (fluff) grows throughout the skin and head.
Thin, colorless hairs play an important role: they prevent the leaching of the original grease, which is responsible for maintaining the heat of the body of the fetus, its protection from amniotic fluid.
This lubricant will help during childbirth to go the way towards the world and, if it remains in small quantities, will quickly disappear.
An important process occurs inside large bones. In them, the red blood brain (bone marrow) begins to work actively. By producing more and more red blood cells, he gradually takes away the function of hematopoiesis in the liver.
Freed from the need to perform hematopoietic function, the liver becomes the main organ of digestion.
The respiratory system is almost complete. The lungs have not yet developed to the final stage and are presented in the form of a glandular structure. Bronchi expects an increase in size in the coming weeks.
The development of the reproductive system, in particular the external genitalia, continues. Boys begin to produce testosterone.
Interesting! In boys and girls, the genitals develop from an identical genital tubercle.
The Y chromosome obtained from dad, under the influence of hormones, allows the sexual tubercle to transform into the penis.
Initially, the clitoris and penis are of common origin.
At the current time on ultrasound it is already possible to consider the sex of the unborn child if he turns the right side. But there is still a high probability of error.
- Stick to the principle: vegetables and fruits, fish and meat, cereals and dairy products. Jelly and porridge perfectly prevent heartburn.
- The diet should be as low as possible caffeine, smoked meats, preservatives, dyes, fatty and spicy foods.
- Steam, bake or cook.
- Exercise, swim, do special yoga.
- Listen to classics, calm, beautiful music. If you are listening through headphones, do not set the volume level high.
- Forbid yourself to worry. In any situations, think first about the child, then about what happened and what to do.
- If you are concerned about health, keep a diary of well-being and sensations.
- Sexual life requires attention to posture during coitus. The joy and pleasure of intimate communication with a partner is very important. If there is a threat of miscarriage, scarcity of amniotic fluid, pregnancy with twins and a low placenta, doctors recommend restricting or eliminating sex. But do not lock yourself in. Together with your partner, think about other ways of getting intimate pleasure that will appeal to both.
- Watch out for colds and viral diseases. During a flu epidemic, wear a medical mask, try not to be where there are a lot of people (if possible).
- Unless you yourself are a doctor, do not treat yourself on anything.
A gestational age of 15 weeks is already the end of the fourth month. This time helps the expectant mother to gain strength and strengthen her health.
The uterus grows every day, and your baby continues its long and difficult path to the moment of birth.
What happens to a woman at 15 weeks of gestation, from a physical point of view:
- nasal congestion, not accompanied by fever and other signs of a cold,
- establishing a stool, because the uterus is now slightly raised and does not put so much pressure on the stomach. Along with this, heartburn may increase,
- the appearance of shortness of breath, which is associated with squeezing the diaphragm due to a slight displacement of the internal organs,
- slight discomfort in the lumbar region,
- colostrum begins to stand out from the nipples,
- tooth sensitivity increases, indicating a lack of calcium,
- due to the increased blood volume in the body, the load on the heart increases, a woman has dizziness,
- occasionally, the pregnant woman is still sick and other manifestations of toxicosis may persist.
If dizziness is too frequent and there is a feeling of fear of losing consciousness and falling, you should definitely inform your doctor. Sleeping becomes uncomfortable. Now it is better for mommy to rest on her side, this will exclude squeezing the dorsal vessels with the uterus.
What does the expectant mother feel at 15 weeks of pregnancy
Week 15 is the most favorable time, since a woman is no longer tormented by such unpleasant phenomena as toxicosis, dizziness, drowsiness. The breast continues to fill, increasing in volume, the nipples gradually darken.
The rounded tummy is already visible to the naked eye, as the uterus rises more and more. Now its upper wall is 7-7.5 cm below the navel. In addition, skin pigmentation intensifies by week 15: freckles, moles, nipples and areoles darken and the longitudinal line on the stomach. All this is due to the production of melanin, which is amplified every day. But this is not a reason for excitement, because after the birth all this will pass.
By the 15th week of pregnancy, even a slender mother will have to change her tight skirts and jeans for more comfortable clothes. At this time, the baby is growing quite quickly.There is an intensive accumulation of amniotic fluid.
The uterus is increasing, now its growth rate is the most intense for the entire pregnancy. After looking at the standing of the bottom of the uterus from the photo, it can be seen: she quite approached the umbilical zone and will soon leave the inner bed. Such a position can make urination difficult: it becomes more rare. Pressure on the rectum is reduced, but constipation is no exception.
At week 15, the body of the expectant mother continues to adapt to new conditions and prepares for motherhood, so colostrum begins to stand out from the mammary glands, the formation of the placenta ends, the blood volume increases by 20%, making a big load on the heart. Uterine-placental (i.e. between the uterus and the placenta) and feto-placental circulation (i.e. between the fetus and the placenta) begin to function. The level of hCG is gradually decreasing and, as a result, mood spikes disappear.
Hazards at week 15
Pregnancy does not always go according to plan. Many mothers face various pathologies that threaten the life of their crumbs. This includes:
- Gestosis or late toxicosis. Usually he appears in the third trimester of pregnancy, but at this stage is no exception. At the same time, mommy is sick, vomiting appears, headache, appetite is disturbed, the girl loses weight. It is very important to find the cause of this condition, because it carries a threat to the life of the mother and child.
- Detachment of the placenta. The placenta is attached to various parts of the uterus. This may be anterior or posterior presentation of the fetus. With detachment, there is a risk of losing the baby. In addition, severe bleeding is often a lasting death and the most pregnant. It is possible to save the life of a child with partial or progressive detachment of the placenta. With complete detachment, the process is irreversible.
- Fetal freezing. Frozen pregnancy means a complete halt to the development of the child, followed by decomposition of the membranes. In the early stages, the pregnant woman often does not suspect what happened, because at first there are no signs. Later, symptoms such as pain, spotting, intoxication of the body join.
- Pain in the lower abdomen. Often, girls at the fifteenth week complain that they have a pull on their lower abdomen. With a successful pregnancy, this symptom is not considered a pathology and is associated with stretching of the muscles of the uterus. But this does not always happen. Sometimes pain and discomfort appear when a miscarriage begins. In this case, bleeding, nausea, fever, general deterioration of well-being appear. Therefore, if there are alarm signs, it is recommended to consult a specialist.
- Amniotic fluid leak, cervical opening. These pathological conditions provoke oligohydramnios, which poses a serious threat to the life of the child. With timely diagnosis of these problems, it is often possible to maintain a pregnancy.
In addition, ultrasound and laboratory tests help to identify the baby various chromosomal diseases, including Down syndrome, Edwards and other disorders.
In order to promptly suspect and identify certain violations of the baby, it is recommended that the young mother take all the prescribed tests, and be registered in the antenatal clinic.
Pain at 15 weeks gestation
A growing uterus and muscle stretching leads to minor pain and discomfort. These are normal sensations, it is worth worrying only if the abdomen has become tight and spotting has appeared. A shift in the center of gravity leads to pain in the lumbosacral spine. A bandage helps to slightly reduce discomfort, but you should consult your observing gynecologist about wearing it.
After 15 weeks, the uterus is female and can be felt independently from a supine position.In the second trimester, it is important to pay attention to the tone of the uterus, its constant density indicates the threat of abortion.
How many months is this?
By week 15, all women, with extremely rare exceptions, are undergoing follow-up in their antenatal clinic. And this fact itself becomes the reason that confusion in the timing of pregnant women does not occur. At earlier dates, there are some discrepancies - a woman believes that she has one term, and for some reason the doctor puts a couple of weeks more. Now women are “in position” already accustomed to such a concept as obstetric gestation. It is considered from the day the last begins until the onset of pregnancy menstruation.
15 obstetric week is 13 weeks from conception. 11 weeks have passed since the start of the delay (more than 77 days).
There is a fourth month of pregnancy, and this period is considered the easiest and easiest for the entire pregnancy. The main examinations were left behind, now a woman can relax a bit and tune in to the "equator". Very soon, pregnancy will reach half its term.
In order not to get confused, it should also be clearly understood that the 15 obstetric week is not 15 full weeks, but 14-15 obstetric weeks, in other words, six days, which are between 14 and 15 weeks.
How does a woman feel?
The hormonal "revolution" in the body has taken place. Now, progesterone and hCG have accumulated enough to ensure the normal development of the baby in the future, and in large quantities these substances are no longer produced. As the hormonal background becomes more stable, a woman feels much better. Many note that at the beginning of the 15th week they experienced an unexpected surge of strength and vigor.
Some women at this time do not experience anything unusual, most often they are those “lucky ones” who have not had the chance to experience the torment of toxicosis of the first trimester. If at the beginning of pregnancy a woman had a tight time, then right now she is pleased to note that she felt easy, good, pleased. The nausea receded, morning vomiting does not recur, the smells from the kitchen do not vomit, and the perfume does not cause disgust.
The drowsiness that haunted the expectant mother from the first weeks of pregnancy begins to disappear, and the woman becomes more cheerful and efficient, she no longer has severe fatigue in the afternoon, and her head hurts less often. Headaches, which were also a consequence of exposure to large doses of progesterone, become less intense. The mood improves. Already there are no sharp emotional drops, causeless tears and anxiety. Understanding that dangerous period in terms of miscarriage, makes a woman more confident, calm, balanced and peaceful.
Among the unpleasant sensations that are quite real at this gestational age are mild sipping pains in the lower abdomen, in its lateral parts, as well as in the lower back. They usually have a completely understandable physiological origin - the uterus grows, the woman begins to feel it, and the ligaments that hold the female reproductive organ stretch, and this process is accompanied by the same episodic pains.
Some women still experience some difficulty in nasal breathing - rhinitis, which is caused by swelling of the mucous membranes, can persist, but in most cases it goes away with toxicosis and other unpleasant “companions” of the first trimester of pregnancy.
A pleasant “event” of the 15th obstetric week is the normalization of urination. Women who previously suffered from frequent urges begin to use the toilet less frequently. But the growing uterus rises slowly and steadily and is already striving to tighten the diaphragm, and therefore this week or a week later, the woman may experience shortness of breath, it becomes more difficult to breathe.This condition will last until the end of the third trimester, and only when the stomach "drops", a few weeks before birth, she can again breathe fully.
Heartburn continues to torment some of the expectant mothers at week 15, and constipation often occurs. Physiologically, these unpleasant phenomena can be explained by the pressure of the growing uterus on the digestive organs. Also, they are often associated with a woman violating the principles of proper nutrition during pregnancy. By the way appetite from the second trimester begins to grow, and the main thing is not to overdo it and not gain extra poundsthat certainly won’t benefit either mom or her baby.
So, fifteen weeks is already the second trimester of pregnancy. Consider what happens to the little man at this stage and what the baby can do?
- At this time, crumbs can be compared in size with a large apple or orange. Every day a little man is actively growing and developing.
- Movement is not yet felt. In extremely rare cases, multiparous mothers can notice subtle vibrations in the lower abdomen. Despite this, the child already clearly hears the world around him. Therefore, the girl is recommended more often to listen to pleasant music, to watch informative programs.
- The appearance of the baby is a miniature of a well-formed man. He actively moves his arms, legs, turns his head, somersaults.
- The skin of the baby is very thin, through it types of blood vessels. There is no fat layer yet, because it seems that the crumbs have a red color.
- At the 15th week of pregnancy, the brain is actively forming. The rudiments of the first convolutions — grooves — are already appearing.
- Subtle cilia and eyebrows appear on the face. Hair follicles form throughout the body.
The child already has a lot of nerve cells. This gives him the opportunity to feel. The baby distinguishes between bright and dim light, hears mom’s voice and surrounding sounds. The brain learns to regulate its activities, although it does it awkwardly at this stage.
What else happens with the baby:
- The eyes are already in their anatomical place. Although they are also closed, the baby clearly distinguishes between light and darkness.
- At the fifteenth week, the digestive system organs are fully functioning. Bile is synthesized in the liver, food is actively digested.
- The little man has the first taste buds. He already distinguishes what mother eats, gives preference to certain products.
- Actively functioning kidneys. Urine is constantly released into the amniotic fluid. Do not worry, this will not bring the baby the slightest harm, because the amniotic fluid is constantly updated.
At week 15, the baby confuses day and night, so it often remains awake at night and vice versa. Mom often has a strange desire to combine incompatible products, such as salty tea or borsch with jam. This is quite normal, so your baby is experimenting with tastes.
Risk factors at 15 weeks gestation
At week 15, a woman should carefully monitor her health. If you experience weakness or dizziness, you should immediately consult a doctor, as this may be evidence of development hypotension. The disease is dangerous because the fetus does not receive enough oxygen, resulting in oxygen starvation and subsequent developmental problems. The expectant mother should spend a lot of time in the air, eat well and sleep a lot, because at the beginning of the second trimester miscarriages or fading of pregnancy can occur. With the right lifestyle and good health of the future mother, there is nothing to worry about.
Similarly manifests itself andIron-deficiency anemia during pregnancy, developing with insufficient amount of iron in the body of the future mother.In addition, the skin and mucous membranes of the inner eyelid become pale, brittle nails, hair fall out, hands go numb, shortness of breath may appear. Anemia in pregnant women is very common, and with timely detection is easily amenable to correction. Sometimes it’s enough to increase the amount of iron-containing foods in the diet (red meat, liver, legumes, buckwheat, nuts, leafy greens, green apples) and more often take walks in the air. But if a severe degree of anemia has developed, then most likely you will have to go to the hospital, and it is better not to refuse such treatment.
Ultrasound examination at week 15 is rare. Usually this type of diagnosis is prescribed during the first screening at 11-12 weeks. In the presence of some indications, an ultrasound is still performed. With its help, it is possible to find out:
- single or multiple pregnancy (twins, triplets),
- baby parameters - weight, KTR, TVP, height and other criteria,
- palpitations (normal at this time is 150-170 beats / min.)
- the condition of the placenta, the location of the fetus in the uterus,
- polyhydramnios or low water,
- condition of the uterine pharynx and neck of the organ.
At the 15th week of pregnancy, a triple test is often performed. Specialists recommend this type of laboratory examination to all patients. Without fail, a triple test should be performed by women with suspected malformations in the fetus, in the presence of older children with chromosomal diseases, as well as mothers after 35 years.
With age, the chance of having a baby with a genetic disorder increases significantly. In this regard, such a couple must undergo all necessary medical examinations during pregnancy.
Fetal size and development at 15 weeks gestation
By the fifteenth week of pregnancy baby grew up to 93-103 mm, and its mass is about 70 grams, the diameter of its head is about 28 mm, the tummy is 27 mm, the chest is 28 mm.
In this period of its development, the baby is the same like an ordinary person. Outwardly, he is like a baby who is sleeping quietly:
- his body stretched out
- the arms and legs are already fully formed, and the legs are longer than the handles,
- the ears took their usual form.
On the fingers of the baby you can see thin marigolds. The skin is thin, through it you can see the nets of blood vessels. Now the blood in its composition is identical to the blood of an adult.
Liver from this time it functions as a digestive organ. The child’s bones are getting stronger and stronger. The hairs on the baby’s head become a little tougher, cilia and eyebrows appear. The eyes are still set wide, but gradually mix toward the center of the little face.
The most important thing that happens at 15 weeks of pregnancy - begins gradual formation of cortex cells. This will now last the entire 4th month. Already, the cerebral hemispheres are covered with convolutions and grooves, nerve cells divide quite actively. The central nervous system takes responsibility for the work of the whole organism.
With twin pregnancy, at week 15, mom feels very well. Her tummy is about the same as that of other moms on the 17th week. Twins need a lot more space to develop one and the other. If the kids do not have enough space, then, as a rule, one of them, which is stronger, begins to eat all the useful minerals and substances, and the second is not so active and there are cases of improper development.
Each of the kids in this period weighs about 60 grams, and their size is only 10 centimeters. Breadcrumbs are not crowded in the mother’s tummy, so they try to move in every way, show their activity.
Photo of a child on ultrasound
What the baby looks like at 15-16 weeks can be seen in this picture ultrasound
In this picture, twin pregnancy
Sex determination at this time is a rather difficult task.To find out a boy or girl is in the tummy, you can use 3D ultrasound. This procedure is paid, so another option is to just wait a little longer.
What happens to mom at week 15
On the 15th week formation of the placenta ends. From this moment, it is she who is responsible for the connection of mother and baby. Mom gains in weight from about 1.5 kg to 3.5 kg from the moment of pregnancy. The tummy is noticeably rounded. You can see the photo of tummies at the 15th week of pregnancy above.
At the very beginning of the second trimester on the stomach the appearance of brown pigmentation. It happens in the form of a line which, as it were, divides the tummy exactly in the middle, and small spots on the skin. After the birth of the baby, everything will pass without a trace.
Areola nipples increase and become a little darker - the mammary glands are preparing for future feeding, many women at this time observe the release of the first colostrum. Learn more about this.
Since the baby grows quite intensively, there is an increase in the amount of amniotic fluid. The result is an increase in the size of the uterus and muscle mass. It rises from the zone of the pelvic cavity, gradually the pressure on the rectum becomes weaker and weaker less frequent urination.
Already no such prolonged toxicosis, Mom’s well-being improves, inspiration and a surge of strength appear. This is a small treat of the 15th week of pregnancy. In addition, mommy herself just blossoms in front of her eyes, a certain mysterious beauty appears (although not at all), so you need to have time to enjoy this state.
Uterine pressure may appear tailbone pain. It is better not to sit for a long time on a soft surface. To make the pain less, mom helps herself by standing on all fours.
If the discharge at the 15th week of pregnancy has become larger and they are transparent in color, then this is just the result of an increase in the level of estrogen in the blood and you should not worry about this.
You can not ignore the spotting pink, brown or cream color. If a woman has found purulent discharge, discharge accompanied by burning, itching, fever, discharge of an unusual texture, then urgent need to contact a gynecologist and take a swab to identify infections.
During this period, many mothers become distracted and inattentive. All necessary questions and problems should be solved in the second trimester, so that you can rest calmly before childbirth.
If a woman has no contraindications, then she can continue an active life.
In anticipation of the baby, mommy experiences many touching moments. One of these points is stirring tiny son or daughter. Sensations during the movement of the fetus at the 15th week of pregnancy are rather weak and barely distinguishable. It is very similar to rumbling in the stomach. You need to remember the day when the baby first stirred, and tell your gynecologist about it.
Sex at 15 weeks gestation
Sex is not forbidden this week, the only thing to take care of is that you can and should be very anxious, because too much stress for the expectant mother is undesirable. In order not to expose yourself or the baby to risk, you should consult your doctor who will say if there are any contraindications for intimate relationships.
Changes in the body
The most important change in the body of the expectant mother this week is a growing belly. Now it is visible to everyone. Few people manage to keep the pregnancy secret at this time. But this is no longer required, because all the bad "signs" that "prohibit" a woman from divulging the fact of her pregnancy at an earlier date no longer play a role, because the threat of spontaneous abortion is now minimal.
Outwardly, the woman has changed a lot. She rounded, the waist "added" 3-4 centimeters, the hips look wider.The normal weight gain this week is 3-3.3 kilograms for thin women, 2-2.6 kilograms for women with normal physique and not more than 1.2 kilograms for obese women. This increase consists of the mass of the fetus, amniotic fluid, placenta and fat reserves in the body of the mother, which the pregnancy hormone progesterone diligently creates.
Weight gain in excess of these values is an occasion to consult a doctor and choose the right diet and physical activity.
The height of the uterine fundus this week is 12–13 centimeters. The bottom of the uterus approaches the middle of the vertical between the pubis and the navel. The uterus has already reached such a size that it is easily probed through the anterior abdominal wall.
The length of the cervix on average for the current period is 36 mm. In the second pregnancy, it is slightly larger - up to 36.7 mm. The uterus is above the bosom, it is already in the abdominal cavity. The uterus itself begins to stretch, while it is more rounded, but gradually the shape changes to an oval. The ligaments that hold this organ are stretched, which can cause mild aching pains and tingling in the lower abdomen, in the lower back. Due to a change in the center of gravity, complaints may appear that the back hurts.
A woman is more actively producing melatonin, because of this, freckles can become brighter, in some pregnant women it is now that age spots and large spots begin to appear. You should not be afraid - the features of pigmentation during pregnancy are such that after childbirth even the largest pigment “marks” will not remain.
The chest continues to grow, but not as intensively as in the first trimester. Therefore, at the 15th obstetric week of pain, itching in the nipples is practically not observed. The nipples themselves darkened a few weeks ago, now many women, especially those who had previously given birth and breastfeeding, are intensively developing colostrum - the "prototype" of future breast milk.
To make the large and magnificent breast easier to “wear”, a woman needs a bra with wide straps and comfortable cups. If there is so much colostrum that it stains clothes, you can wear a nursing bra - it has special internal “pockets” for inserts that will prevent blouses and T-shirts from getting dirty.
This week in the woman’s body is another 20% more circulating blood. This is due to the intensive growth of the placenta. therefore short-term bouts of dizziness, a decrease in blood pressure can occur. If the pressure decreases gradually, the woman usually does not feel anything special. But sharp jumps in blood pressure can be quite well felt.
In case of loss of consciousness, headaches, nausea and weakness, you should definitely visit a doctor ahead of schedule, without waiting for a scheduled appointment at the antenatal clinic.
The level of chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) begins to decline. He reached his "peak" as early as 12-13 weeks and now until the birth he will gradually fall down. Now the concentration of this hormone is in the range of 6140-130000 Honey / ml, and during pregnancy with twins - twice as high.
This week outlines and the mother-placenta-fetus system begins to function. Uninterrupted blood circulation between the uterus and the placenta (utero-placental blood flow) and between the fetus and the placenta (fetoplacental blood flow) is being established. The placenta completes its formation, fully protecting the child from everything negative from the outside and nourishing him with everything that he needs.
Allocations characteristic for the 15th week are no different from the accepted norms for the previous weeks. Their amount should be moderate, the color should be white or slightly yellowish, the smell should be absent, but the presence of a slight sour smell is not considered abnormal. Naturally, there should be no itching, pain and other unpleasant sensations.If the discharge becomes greenish or gray, gets an unpleasant odor, this indicates inflammation, infection, localized in the genital tract.
Thrush with white cheesy discharge characteristic of it happens infrequently this week, but if this happens, you should definitely inform your doctor right away.
The most dangerous are bloody discharge, blood, brown or pink. This color gives them blood in various concentrations. These may be symptoms of problems with the cervix, with the placenta.
If any spotting appears in the presence or absence of pain, you should immediately call an ambulance and go to a medical facility. Self-medication and the hope that “everything will pass by itself” can be extremely dangerous for the health of the child and the expectant mother.
Allocations: norm and pathology
Vaginal discharge is observed in all women. This is not considered a deviation if the secret has a mucous transparent texture without an unpleasant odor. The reason should be sought in those situations if the discharge is of the following nature:
- brown or pink is a sign of bleeding. Sometimes they occur after sex, with cervical erosion or after a gynecological examination,
- white flakes - thrush,
- yellow, gray, greenish with an unpleasant odor - indicate the presence of genital infections,
- watery - leakage of amniotic fluid.
During pregnancy, the amount of discharge may increase slightly, which is also not a deviation and occurs due to the flow of blood to the pelvic organs.
If you find the signs described above, you should not postpone the visit to the doctor. Especially dangerous are discharge with an admixture of blood or bleeding.
Possible abnormalities, frozen pregnancy
Almost every expectant mother has a risk the appearance of a baby with Down syndrome. This risk will increase in direct proportion to the age of the pregnant woman. At 25 years old, 1 woman out of 1300 gives birth to a sunny child, and at 50 this figure drops to the ratio of 1:12. For this, 3 prenatal screenings are carried out in three trimesters of pregnancy, which should not be missed.
The longer the gestation period, the worse miscarriage for the body itself. During this period, it is possible due to stress (it is difficult to cope with it), excessive excitement or uterine hypertonicity. Detachment of the placenta may occur, which is always harmful and dangerous for the baby.
Frozen pregnancy at 15 weeks is a direct threat to the life of the expectant mother. A frozen fetus contributes to severe intoxication if it is in the mother’s body for a long time. It must be urgently removed, because even a fatal outcome is possible. Therefore, you need to pay attention to the symptoms that tell the woman what is what.
TO symptoms missed pregnancies include: general weakness, pain in the lower abdomen (pulling and aching), fever (the cause is the inflammatory process from the fetus freezing), spotting, cardiac arrest (a gynecologist can establish on a routine examination or an ultrasound scan), the fetus does not move.
Why is the belly at week 15 big or small
Uterine growth begins from the first weeks after conception. In the second trimester, its height is about 15 cm. Experts believe that in primogenous mothers a small tummy is explained by a good muscle tone of the anterior abdominal wall. In addition, the causes of small roundness include:
- pregnant body constitution (wide pelvic bones, fatty deposits),
- low water
- incorrect fetal position
- hypertrophy of the child.
A large tummy in a future mother appears for the following reasons:
- too much amniotic fluid (polyhydramnios),
- the presence of diseases of an infectious nature,
- wrong position of the child
- deviations in the development of the placenta,
- multiple pregnancy
- large sizes of the baby,
- features of the constitution of a woman’s body,
- hereditary predisposition.
If the doctor did not suspect a pathology during the examination, do not worry. After all, the body of every mommy is unique.
In some, the tummy grows in the early stages, in others it remains invisible for a long time. The chubby roundness is not immediately noticeable, thin women have a hard stomach to hide even under wide clothes. Pregnant at 15 weeks should lead a correct lifestyle, eat healthy food. The rest is the work of specialists.
Mom's diet, skin care and exercise at week 15
During this period, finally there is an appetite and taste escalates. It is good if the increased appetite does not lead to overweight (in the week, normally add about 300 grams in the second trimester). All future fasting and fasting days are forbidden to the future mother.
To eat more fruits, vegetables, cottage cheese, kefir, meat and fish. Drink at least six glasses of water daily. Mashed potatoes will be useful - vegetable and fruit, light broth, seaweed, tomato juice. Since the baby is actively developing bones at the 15th week, he will take calcium from his mother’s body, so she needs to make up for these losses.
Will be useful breathing exercisesto be performed daily for 10 minutes. Bringing the implementation to automaticity will greatly facilitate the process of childbirth.
Diaphragmatic breathing. With an open palm, put the right hand on the chest, on the upper abdomen the left hand. Inhalation through the nose (it is necessary to inflate the stomach as much as possible). When exhaling, draw the stomach to the back and up.
Breast breathing. Put both hands on the rib cage lower than the sternum, grasp the ribs with the palms of your hands, and place the fingertips on both hands opposite each other, without touching. Take a deep breath in the area under your palms. Exhale noisily with your mouth.
Learn more about second trimester exercises.
Sexual relations at week 15
In the second trimester of pregnancy, which is more comfortable than the first, manifestations of early toxicosis disappear, the expectant mother feels more relaxed and confident.
Do not be afraid to have sexbecause the baby is well protected. Only deep penetration postures are prohibited. Missionary will do just fine.
This period is suitable for the implementation of a variety of joint caresses, which will diversify the sex life and make some nice changes in intimate relationships.
Mother. Changes in body condition at week 15
Mom's well-being at the 15th week of pregnancy
The 15th obstetric week of pregnancy is one of the easiest and quietest weeks.
The woman feels much better, the desire to lead an active life, travel, have fun gradually returns.
But you should not relax and indulge "in all serious ways."
At the current stage of pregnancy, it is advisable to adhere to moderation and rationality.
The general well-being of a woman at the 15th week can be overshadowed by some unpleasant manifestations.
Among the most common symptoms are:
- discomfort in the lower abdomen, itching.
The uterus continues to grow, slowly stretching the skin on the stomach. This process with weak skin elasticity can cause such a symptom,
- drowsiness, weakness, dizziness.
With normal blood pressure - this indicates a lack of rest.
A woman needs to take care of observing the regime of the day, if possible, sleep during the day. The recommended duration of night sleep is 8-10 hours,
An enlarging uterus squeezes the intestines, causing discomfort.
In addition, hormones that provide relaxation to the uterine muscles inhibit the passage of food through the gastrointestinal tract. As a result, a woman may experience problems with bowel movement, feel heaviness in the stomach.
To reduce the intensity of these manifestations, it is advisable to eat in small portions 5-6 times a day, while not mixing several dishes in one meal.
It is imperative to maintain the correct drinking regime: drink 2-2.5 liters of fluid per day.
Prunes and dried apricots help to cope with constipation,
- increased skin pigmentation.
The appearance of dark spots on the forehead, cheeks, around the lips, darkening of the nipples, vagina. These symptoms are the norm for pregnancy.
Do not get upset and think that pigmentation will remain for life.
In most cases, it passes in the first months after birth,
- high or low blood pressure.
A sufficient number of women at the 15th week of pregnancy begin to feel a change in the amount of blood in the body.
Some have a noticeable decrease in pressure, up to critical levels of 80/50. In such a situation, you must urgently consult a gynecologist for advice.
Sometimes, in the absence of other medical features, coffee and chocolate are prescribed in the morning as a treatment for a pregnant woman.
In a situation where blood pressure often reaches high numbers (especially if higher than 140/90), you need to consult a gynecologist, the appointment of additional examinations, treatment.
Throughout pregnancy, a woman should be monitored to determine the onset of late toxicosis (gestosis) in a timely manner.
- feeling that it’s hard to breathe.
The uterus rises higher in the abdomen of the expectant mother and at the current time can put pressure on the lungs.
As a result, a woman may feel some strangulation of the sternum, lack of air,
- the appearance of fluid from the nipples.
Preparation for lactation is in full swing, as a result, at the 15th week of pregnancy, colostrum can begin to stand out from the nipples.
This is a normal phenomenon, requiring a woman to pay increased attention to breast hygiene.
It is advisable to wash it 2 times a day with clean, warm water, and change the bra daily.
It should be noted that these symptoms do not appear in all women. Some are lucky, and they feel great, others come to tolerate and consult a gynecologist.
Whatever happens to you during pregnancy, you need to take it for granted and be sure to tell the doctor to see the cause of possible complications in time.
Miscarriage at this time and its causes
Week 15 is considered safe, but spontaneous abortion can still happen. Mommies awaiting the baby are concerned about the question of why this is happening. Let's get it right. The main causes of miscarriage:
- hormonal failure in the mother’s body,
- Rhesus conflict between parents,
- fetal chromosomal abnormalities,
- infections and inflammatory diseases of the internal organs of a woman,
- serious intoxication of the body,
- weight lifting
- increased uterine tone,
- intense physical activity,
In the second trimester, a miscarriage is a type of birth process. The patient has severe cramping pains in the lower abdomen, headache, smoothing and opening of the cervix occurs. After this, the amniotic fluid is poured out and the child comes out. Bleeding with a miscarriage at week 15 is often minor, but in some cases this condition poses a threat to the mother’s life.
A miscarriage can last several days. If disturbing signs are found, you need to hurry to the hospital. Often the embryo can be saved.
There are certain standards for the location of the placenta for each gestational age. These values can be found in the table.
If the placenta does not reach the internal pharynx, in medical practice this is called partial placenta previa. When the placenta is blocked by the pharynx, it is a complete presentation. The closer the "baby place" is to the neck, the higher the threat of a dysfunctional pregnancy.
Reasons for low placentation:
- the presence of scars in the uterus,
- uterine fibroids,
- pathology of the genital organ,
- chronic inflammatory diseases
- history of miscarriage or abortion
- endocrine disorders in the mother’s body,
- poor blood circulation in the pelvic area.
The described condition carries a risk of bleeding, often causing an increased tone of the endometrium, placental abruption, and growth retardation. In addition, low placentation provokes a violation of the functions of the placenta, cervical insufficiency and other pathologies.
Women with the diagnosis in question should be closely monitored throughout pregnancy.
Video about the 15th week of pregnancy
We invite you to watch a video that details the changes that occur in the body of a future mother. You can find in it answers to many questionsrelated to pregnancy. What happens to the baby, how hormonal changes affect the skin, how to deal with stretch marks, about superstitions about hair coloring or their haircuts, how mom can look after her appearance during this magical period.
Each of the women has either become a mother, or is preparing to become her soon, or so far is only thinking about it. But any of these conditions is wonderful, because at the end of the road there is a charming pink-cheeked baby - the joy and happiness of the mother’s entire life.
Is flight allowed at week 15?
With a successful course of pregnancy, a flight at this time is quite allowed. At the same time, you may be required to authorize a doctor in the form of a certificate at the airport. There are also services of insurance companies, which you can use as you wish.
Flights are prohibited in the presence of various problems, including:
- the threat of abortion,
- late toxicosis
- previous miscarriages at that time,
- the general poor health of the mother and more.
If there are any problems, it is better to refuse travel. You can read reviews of mothers who flew at week 15 on various forums.
Nutrition and daily routine
As in the early stages, in the second trimester, nutrition and daily routine are important. Mom should be attentive to her health, because now she has a double responsibility. Now you can’t overwork, it is recommended to relax more, walk in the fresh air, watch educational films and listen to pleasant music.
If we talk about nutrition at this time, then there are no clear rules. The main thing is that the daily menu includes high-quality and healthy products. You can eat everything, but a little bit. The list of non-recommended dishes includes:
- smoked meats, hot spices, marinades,
- mayonnaise, ketchup,
- fast foods
- fatty meats
- sweet pastries, baking,
- sweet carbonated and alcoholic drinks,
- strong tea, coffee.
It is better to saturate the menu with foods rich in calcium, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, cereals. Remember, a healthy mother’s diet is the key to good baby health.
Often, upon learning of their pregnancy, women try to limit themselves from any physical exertion. This is wrong, because mobility is important. Of course, we are not talking about power sports and long-distance running. But yoga, gymnastics, swimming and other safe sports are what you need. Mom should often walk outdoors. This will help prevent fetal hypoxia and other undesirable effects.
Kegel exercises will be helpful. Such gymnastics will preserve muscle tone, which will help in the birth process.
Stirring - when to wait?
Pregnant women at week 15, having read reviews on the Internet, begin to look for the first, barely noticeable signs of the baby's first movements. Originous ones should not worry about this until the 20th week.However, women who previously became mothers can theoretically at this time feel the first movements of their baby, but so far they are difficult to distinguish from intestinal motility. Women who carry twins at the 15th week often already feel the stirring of their babies, but so far rarely and weakly.
It is not necessary to count the movements now, even if they appeared. So far this has no diagnostic value. Most likely that at week 15, very thin, slender women and girls will feel the baby’s first light touch from the inside. Women of a denser physique still can not catch these unusual sensations.
There was nothing left of the embryo in the shape of the child. There is no tail that is common to all mammals at the embryonic stage of development. The baby looks quite human, however, certain imbalances are still observed. So, the baby’s head remains large compared to the rest of the body, but it is no longer oval, as before, but rounded.
Hands and feet continue to grow. The upper limbs are so far longer than the lower limbs, a balance between them will be reached later.
The fruit is thin and awkward. His whole body is covered with folds of skin. Such thinness is a consequence of the lack of subcutaneous fat: until it is produced. The skin itself is red due to the fact that a network of blood vessels is visible through it. When subcutaneous fat begins to be produced, both of these “blemishes” in the baby’s appearance will be eliminated - he or she will become a puffy creature with pink delicate skin.
Hair now grows on the baby’s head, but they have no color - all babies at this time are natural blondes. At week 15, the baby has cilia and eyebrows. The eyes are still closed, the eyelids are fully formed. This week, the formation of the auricles ends, now the external organs of hearing of the baby look exactly as they will look at the time of his birth.
Ears and eyes "stood" in their places. The face now does not look strange. The nose develops and grows. You can already see the profile of the fetus, and some babies are already snub-nosed, while others have an impressive nose, just like dad or mom. In appearance this week, more and more personality appears.
Now on small fingers small nails are growing with might and main. So far, the nail plates are very thin and delicate, they will begin to harden much later. Unique fingerprints appeared on the pads of the fingers - each baby has his own fingerprints, it is impossible to find two identical ones.
Visit to an obstetrician-gynecologist
Visit to a gynecologist at 15 weeks of gestation
At the 15th obstetric week of pregnancy, another appointment with a gynecologist can be prescribed.
On the eve it is necessary to pass a urinalysis, if necessary, a general blood test and a sugar test. The directions were given by the doctor at the previous meeting.
At the reception, the gynecologist will take measurements:
- blood pressure
- heart rate (HR),
- body temperature
- volume of the abdomen.
If necessary, an inspection will be carried out on the armchair.
Usually, during the current week, the pregnant woman’s complaints about a daub, a change in the color of the discharge, etc.
Using a stethoscope, the gynecologist listens to the fetal heartbeat.
With a light touch of your fingers on the stomach, it will measure the height of the uterus.
At the end of the appointment, he will appoint a date for the next meeting, give directions for analyzes and additional studies (if necessary).
Ultrasound and tests
At the 15th obstetric week, a planned ultrasound scan is not performed.
The basis for an ultrasound examination can be medical indications: a suspicion of a fading pregnancy, the presence of complications of the course, multiple pregnancy, etc.
If desired, a woman can do an ultrasound for a fee.
During the study, the doctor will check whether the development of the fetus matches the deadline, the condition of the uterus, and the placenta.
If the unborn child turns the right side, the doctor can determine his gender.
Despite the fact that the formation of the senses has completed, the baby cannot yet see and hear in full understanding of these words. The retina of his eyes now discerns light that penetrates through very thin, covered eyelids. You can check this with an ultrasound scan. If you shine a flashlight on your mother’s belly, then the baby will begin to move actively, not knowing yet another way to react to an irritant, which is a bright light.
The baby already has a hearing, but so far it resembles the reptile's hearing - it is vibrational, that is, the baby reacts to special vibrations created by sound waves - to her mother’s voice, to the sound of her heart, to loud sounds on the other side of her mother’s belly. About a month later, the inner ear will begin to function fully, convert sound waves, and then the child will begin to hear exactly the same as we, however, adjusted for the aquatic environment and the thickness of the mother’s abdominal wall.
Already, the baby in her mother’s womb has tactile sensitivity - the nerve endings on the skin allow him to feel touch if he accidentally touches the walls of the uterus or himself.
The baby distinguishes tastes for a long time: the papilla receptors on the tongue and cheeks from their inner side work properly, and the baby already prefers sweet over salty or sour. But the baby still does not distinguish smells, since the nasal passages are closed by mucus and there is no breathing in the usual sense of the word, baby receives oxygen with maternal blood.
Uterus and stomach
At the 15th week of pregnancy, the uterus continues to increase in size and rise higher.
At the current date, its bottom is below the navel by 7 cm. So far, it has a round shape.
Together with the uterus, the abdomen also increases. In women who previously gave birth, the size of its cup is significantly larger than that of primiparas.
From the 15th week of pregnancy, the baby reaches a new level - the endocrine glands begin to work, which produce all the hormones necessary for growth and development. The endocrine system begins to function. The pituitary gland begins to control the production of hormones and secretion glands. The pancreas produces insulin, and the thyroid - thyroid-stimulating hormones, thanks to which, including the child’s bones, they begin to accumulate calcium and harden. The adrenal glands, thymus and pineal gland are already beginning to function.
In addition, from the 15th week, the baby’s own endocrine glands begin to work - sweat and sebaceous. Own endocrine system will allow the baby to better adapt to changing living conditions, provide metabolism, it also “spurs” the development of immunity.
It is necessary to clearly distinguish the difference between pain and discomfort.
Itching, a feeling of heaviness in the abdomen at the 15th week of pregnancy is the norm. This is a stretching of the abdominal muscles.
If the abdomen becomes painful, it seems “stone”, while back pain is felt - this is the tone of the uterus.
If these symptoms rarely appear, only after physical exertion, then at the next appointed appointment you need to tell the doctor about this.
With frequent recurrence of symptoms, consult a doctor as soon as possible.
If there is an abdominal pain that gradually increases, with an increase in body temperature above 37.5 degrees Celsius or the appearance of red and brown discharge, it is urgent to seek medical help.
A shift in the center of gravity or tone of the uterus can cause discomfort or back pain.
If after the rest this passes, at the next appointment with the gynecologist it is necessary to mention the symptom that has appeared.
With frequent back pain, accompanied by sensations that the stomach is "stiff", it is necessary to consult a gynecologist as soon as possible.
Sometimes headaches at the 15th week of pregnancy can be caused by a lack of oxygen or a violation of the drinking regimen.
If a woman walks outside for a sufficient amount of time and drinks about 2.5 liters of water per day, it is necessary to monitor blood pressure when this symptom appears.
If your blood pressure is above 140/90, you must definitely tell the gynecologist about it at the next appointment.
Pain in the legs
Pain in the legs at the current time can be caused by:
- lack of trace elements in the body,
- beginning or exacerbated varicose veins.
About this symptom, you need to tell the gynecologist at the next appointment.
Before this, you need to rest more often, raising your legs high, check the diet for balance.
The central nervous system in the current obstetric week takes control of the baby's body. Now, with every week, his movements will become more arbitrary and conscious. In the brain, which already has a hemisphere and all departments, the cortex begins to appear at this time. This is the same gray matter that will allow the baby to think after birth and provide higher nervous activity.
The cortex develops from the embryonic ectoderm - the front of the neural plate. In the near future, all six layers of the cerebral cortex will develop.
Red bone marrow at this time provides the production of blood cells. The spinal cord conducts impulses from all organs and systems to the brain. Now all the components of the central nervous system are being improved and “hone” the interaction. Already now in the “arsenal” of crumbs there are several reflexes important for survival - he knows how to suck, swallow, kick off obstacles. If the baby is frightened, he tries to hide, the self-preservation instinct begins to work.
At the 15th obstetric week of pregnancy, a woman can drink a multivitamin complex with the permission of a gynecologist.
It is possible to prescribe additional drugs to make up for the missing elements (calcium, magnesium, vitamin D, iodine, zinc, selenium, etc.).
The need and type of component should be determined by the doctor at the reception after evaluating the biochemical analysis of the blood, general well-being and appearance of the expectant mother.
It is not recommended to self-prescribe vitamins and minerals, use them uncontrollably.
It is important to understand that an overabundance of beneficial substances in the body is as harmful as their lack.
By the current period, most women have gained 2.5-3.5 kg since the beginning of pregnancy.
Over the next 7 days, the maximum weight gain should be about 500 g.
The weight control is carried out by the gynecologist at the reception, but the woman must make efforts so that the weight remains within the established framework.
If you follow the diet and with proper behavior, excess dialing can become a "bell" to increased control over the state of the body of the future mother.
Extra pounds are not good and can cause unwanted consequences for the woman and the fetus.
It is possible and it is impossible
Among the recommendations for a pregnant woman, it is important to observe:
- a ban on smoking and staying near smoking people,
- a ban on the use of alcohol and narcotic substances, work with chemicals with toxic effects,
- appointment of a gynecologist. Avoid self-medication, uncontrolled medication,
- a ban on the use of harmful foods and drinks (soda, fast food, sausages, sushi, chewing gum, etc.),
- principles of healthy eating,
- drinking regimen. Drink about 2.5 liters of fluid per day,
- the rule of comfortable clothing and shoes.
It is worth giving up tight-fitting, squeezing and uncomfortable, to wear shoes at low speed.
It may be necessary to buy shoes one size larger in the current period,
- safety measures to protect against diseases: do not overcool, do not contact sick people, avoid crowded places during the epidemic,
Protect yourself from stress, strive to remain calm and positive attitude,
- rule of daily walk.
- A pregnant woman needs to walk in the fresh air every day for at least 30 minutes,
- moderate exercise.
- Overfatigue, as well as a complete rejection of loads, are not recommended.
It is advisable to engage in activities allowed for pregnant women: swimming, walking, water aerobics, Pilates, yoga.
Train your pelvic floor muscles well with Skittle exercises
- daily regime.
- Good sleep for 8-10 hours at night will help to avoid weakness and lethargy.
At the current time, finding a comfortable position is not always easy.
You can use a special pillow for pregnant women or put small pillows under your legs, back and neck.
From the current period it is advisable to sleep only on one side,
Acceptance of any medications at the 15th obstetric week of pregnancy should be carried out as prescribed and under the supervision of a gynecologist.
Despite the improvement in the defenses of the fetus, it is still very weak, and some medications can lead to impaired development, the appearance of defects and other undesirable consequences.
Intimate life for the current period is not prohibited, unless there is a direct instruction from the gynecologist.
An expanding tummy requires accuracy and moderation from men and women.
Poses should be chosen in which the woman’s abdomen will not be pressured, the body will be in comfortable positions.
Lack of vitamins
Vitamins at the 15th obstetric week of pregnancy
There are frequent cases when women note the appearance of undesirable manifestations of insufficient intake of vitamins in the body.
Brittle hair and nails, leg pains, dry and flaky skin, brittle and painful teeth, chapped lips are just some of the possible options.
Such manifestations must be treated carefully and be sure to tell the gynecologist about them.
Timely notification of the doctor will allow you to correctly adjust the nutrition, timely start taking the necessary vitamins.
In most pregnant women, a decrease in pressure is observed at the current time, but sometimes a woman begins to accompany headaches and nosebleeds.
This situation should lead the expectant mother to the idea that it is necessary to begin to control blood pressure indicators and, when the indicators increase above 140/90, it is imperative to tell the gynecologist about this.
High blood pressure during pregnancy can be a harbinger of late toxicosis, and a woman is at risk for possible pregnancy complications.
The doctor should constantly monitor the indicators of the future mother and prescribe treatment that helps to reduce it.
Often at the 15th obstetric week of pregnancy, women are faced with incipient varicose veins.
The appearance of a mesh of capillaries in the legs is a mild form that does not require treatment, but it is necessary to observe it.
With the appearance of pain associated with the appearance of varicose veins, constant monitoring is necessary.
In severe cases, the need for surgical intervention and the wearing of special compression underwear is possible.
The appearance of varicose veins during pregnancy is caused by an increase in the uterus, which can squeeze veins and arteries that provide blood flow to the lower body.
As a result, blood travels more slowly through the legs, causing unpleasant symptoms.
If a woman noticed the appearance of pain in the legs, and red stripes were visible on them, a gynecologist should be consulted.
The risk of a missed pregnancy at the 15th obstetric week of pregnancy is low, but exists.
At a certain stage of fetal development, fetal death is possible.
There can be many reasons: from genetic abnormalities in the embryo, the influence of external factors.
As a result of the cessation of development, the fetus dies and begins to decompose in the woman's body.
This is a dangerous situation that can harm a woman’s health and reproductive function.
Therefore, if there is a suspicion of a frozen pregnancy, it is urgent to seek medical help.
Symptoms that should alert:
- severe growing pains in the lower abdomen, worse when pressed,
- the appearance of red or brown vaginal discharge, bleeding,
- temperature increase above 37.5 degrees Celsius,
- the appearance of pus in the vaginal discharge,
- general deterioration,
- reduction in breast tenderness.
If a woman has noticed one or more of these symptoms, it is urgent to seek medical help.
The 15th obstetric week of pregnancy is a calm period in the life of a pregnant woman.
Most expectant mothers feel good, gradually returning to their usual lives.
But do not forget about the rules of behavior and nutrition, so as not to harm your own health and development of the baby.
The changes that occur with the fetus in the current term are amazing and very important.
The rate of growth and development of the fetus, its health and the features of the work of its internal systems depend on how much the mother can provide the unborn child with vitamins and minerals.
Try to adhere to moderation and be sure to follow the instructions of the gynecologist.
The baby’s gall bladder has grown, it functions by producing bile, and now this fluid begins to enter the intestines. It will be she who will stain the original fecal “meconium” in dark green, almost black, color. The intestines themselves learned to contract well. Up to 70 times a day, the child’s intestines “rehearses” peristalsis, despite the fact that there is still no complete digestion.
Thanks to the well-functioning work of the stomach and kidneys, the child now swallows amniotic fluid and pees with regularity. Urine again enters the amniotic fluid, which very often renews its composition and remain a safe, sterile environment for the crumbs.
The heart of the child is functioning at full strength. Now this small organ is doing a great job - it provides blood to all parts of the body, a day the baby’s heart pumps 23-25 liters of blood. The heart rate (HR) at week 15 is on average 157 beats per minute. Variations from 146 to 168 beats per minute are possible.
Already now, by the nature of the fetal heartbeat, we can conclude how well the fetus feels - hypoxia causes an increase in rhythm, and prolonged chronic hypoxia causes a decrease.
The lungs and bronchi of the baby are formed. The respiratory system actively “trains”, making movements that, after birth, the crumbs will become the basis of breathing. The liver is now becoming the digestive organ.
The baby’s gender can already be tried to be determined by ultrasound, however, provided that the baby is located on the sensor with the desired part of the body. The genitals are formed and grown enough to be visualized. It is at this time that many pregnant women go for an ultrasound scan to find out the gender of the baby, but the number of erroneous conclusions is now quite large. In order not to doubt, not think whether the doctor was mistaken or not, it is better to wait another three weeks. Then sexual identification can be carried out more simply, and there will be much less room for doubt.
Boy fetuses are now producing their own sex hormone, testosterone. In girls, estrogens will begin to be produced a little later, while the little princess has enough maternal sex hormones. The internal genital organs are fully formed - the boys have a prostate gland, and the girls have ovaries with millions of eggs.
In female fetuses, the ovaries descended from the abdominal cavity into the pelvis. In boys, the testicles have not yet descended into the scrotum, this process has not even begun. Their testicles still remain in the abdominal cavity. They will start their way down from about the 19th week of pregnancy, and they will descend into the scrotum from the pelvis by the 28-30th week.
Now the development of the child begins to "adapt" to gender. So, male fruits gain weight a little faster than women, and boys grow with a slight lead.
What can the baby do?
Despite the fact that the baby is in the mother’s womb and depends entirely on her, he has already learned a lot and can do a lot. His muscles develop rapidly. At his disposal are many different movements and facial expressions.
At week 15, most of the children know how to smile and willingly demonstrate this new skill to doctors of ultrasound diagnostics, if a woman is now prescribed such an examination. In addition, all children know how to frown, yawn, hiccup, fold their lips with a tube. Kids are keenly interested in what is happening around, touch the umbilical cord, themselves, feel their face, put their fists in their mouths and suck them with pleasure, just like they will do after they are born.
Some babies are already beginning to show "character" - some cover the genitals with handles or turn away from the scanner of an ultrasound diagnostician, while others do not mind paying attention to their own person and are happy to pose, showing everything they have to the doctor. Some children are timid and “freeze” from loud sounds, while others are curious and mobile, and from external pathogens, on the contrary, they are actively moving.
Ultrasound as a form of diagnosis at week 15 is not considered mandatory. Therefore, the woman is not appointed, this period is in the middle between the first planned and second planned prenatal screenings. If there are no special reasons, which include deterioration, well-being, the appearance of atypical discharge or pain, then the pregnant woman is not sent to the ultrasound room now. Many mothers themselves go to such a diagnosis in order, for example, to find out the sex of the child or look at the baby in three-dimensional format on 3D ultrasound.
Ultrasound preparations are no longer required - the uterus is large enough to be examined through the anterior abdominal wall without a full bladder. A woman also does not need to take drugs that eliminate increased gas formation in the intestine, the intestinal loops are already squeezed out by the uterus.
The baby is clearly visible from all angles. Mom is given to listen to how his little heart beats, and also show how the baby moves. If the genitals are visible, they will certainly be shown separately. To the mother’s question, is everything okay with the baby, the doctor will name his main parameters, they are now talking about how the growth and development of the baby proceed. This week is characterized by such parameters.
- Bdr. This size between the parietal bones is also called the transverse size of the head (biparental). This week it ranges from 27 to 31 mm. If there is more PD, then the doctor may suggest a tendency to form a large fetus. A significant excess of BDP is the basis for a careful study of the structures of the brain of the child, because the head can be large due to the presence of tumors, dropsy (hydrocephalus). The lag of the BDP is considered as a sign of an incorrectly established period or a delay in the fetal development.
- LZR. This size is likely to be measured for the first time in the current obstetric week. It is called the frontooccipital, because it measures the distance from the frontal bone to the occipital. Together with PDU, this size indicates the development of the baby, the proportionality of his head. Normally, at 15 weeks the LZR is from 25 to 39 mm.
- Paired bones. At week 15, DBK (length of the femur) is measured, as well as the bones of the shoulder and lower leg. The normal length of the thigh is 10-18 mm, the bones of the leg are now in the range of 7 to 17 mm, the length of the humerus is 10-19 mm. The length of the bones of the forearm is not yet measured - the forearm is still small.
- Tummy circumference. The kid is still thin, his tummy cannot boast of solid dimensions. At week 15, about 90 mm are considered normal.
- Head circumference. The head is still the largest part of the baby’s body, so do not be surprised that the head circumference is now quite large - within 110-130 mm.
KTP (coccygeal-parietal size) is rarely measured this week, because it becomes difficult - the baby is large and may not fit entirely in the sensor’s range. And even more so, according to KTR, pregnancy terms are not being verified, now there are other indicators for this. Nevertheless, if it is measured, then now it will be in the range of 87-90 mm. Moreover, if the period is approximately equal to 14 weeks and 3-4 days, then the size from the tailbone to the crown will be less than the same indicator at 14 weeks and 5 days.
If for some reason an advanced ultrasound examination, which is done exclusively on expert-class devices, will be recommended to a woman, then Here are a few very interesting sizes that are characteristic for the 15th week of pregnancy:
- the width of the crumb blade is now at the level of 6-11 mm,
- the foot length of the baby at week 15 is 8-11 mm,
- the diameter of the orbit of the fetus is 7-9 mm.
As for the possible pathologies that the baby may have, then this week it is quite difficult to diagnose them despite the level of development of medicine, because all the internal organs are still very small. For example, there is no way to find out if the lungs are healthy, because their formation is still ongoing. Anomalies of the brain are also still difficult to assess, with the exception of cases of anencephaly (lack of the brain).
There is no way to evaluate the structure of the kidneys and bladder. An exception is also only cases of gross pathologies - for example, the absence of one or two kidneys. Everything else will be seen a little later.
But at this time, the digestive organs are already well visualized, the doctor will be able to see gross malformations, for example, atresia of the esophagus. No difficulty in evaluating the skeletal system.
Possible risks and dangers
Despite the fact that the most dangerous period has passed, and a sudden miscarriage at week 15 is practically impossible, a woman should closely monitor her health and record any changes. The list of dangers that may happen at this time is quite large. Let's look at what threats a pregnant woman may face this week, how to recognize them and what to do if this happened.
The threat of miscarriage, non-developing pregnancy
As already mentioned, the probability of a threat is now minimal, but it is not zero, and therefore it is worth being vigilant. If the lower back is very sore, there are bloody or spotting discharge from the genitals, a woman must definitely consult a doctor, and call an ambulance.
Timely contacting a specialist in 97% of cases allows you to quickly establish the cause and maintain pregnancy.
If a bloody “daub” appeared, and ultrasound did not reveal signs of the baby’s vital activity, we can talk about a dead pregnancy. For reasons unknown to science, this happens for a period of 15-17 weeks. Even if a woman successfully overcame other “critical” periods - 3-4 weeks, 8-10 weeks of pregnancy, then right now irreparable can happen. The probability of fetal freezing at this period is small, but it exists.
Unfortunately, medicine cannot help in this case.If the child is dead, then the only thing that can be done for a woman is to free the uterus from the fetus as soon as possible, because internal inflammation can cause sepsis.
Samples of fetal tissues are taken for genetic analysis to find the cause of his death. They do not always find it, but if they find it, this information will be of great value to the doctor, who will subsequently help the couple plan a new pregnancy.
Calcium deficiency in a woman’s body can occur due to the fact that she doesn’t have enough of this mineral in her blood, and the need for a child who is now actively hardening bones and muscle growth is high in calcium. Hypocalcemia can manifest itself in different ways. Most often, a woman’s nails become brittle, teeth may deteriorate, and gums and hair may bleed. Often, expectant mothers complain of cramps in their legs - calves "reduces" to evening or night in a dream.
The attending physician will help correct the situation. It is not necessary to wait for a planned admission in a antenatal clinic, you can call him and clarify which vitamins and minerals you can start taking, is there any need and expediency for an additional intake of calcium preparations.
Colds, flu, SARS
All these unpleasant diseases, if they still could not be protected from them, can no longer harm the child as if they had happened earlier, in the middle of the first trimester. The placenta now copes well with the protective barrier function, and a woman can even take some medications to alleviate her own condition with the disease.
Do not immediately start drinking pills when symptoms and signs of the disease appear. Not all medicines that used to help well are now approved. A woman in a position should definitely call a doctor and consult with him on how best to treat if she has contracted the flu or SARS.
The most dangerous in these most often seasonal ailments is high temperature. Strong and prolonged fever can cause problems with utero-placental and fetoplacental blood flow. Doctors who will tell you which of the antipyretics can now be taken by the expectant mother will help lower the temperature.
"Short" neck or CPI
If a woman has previously been diagnosed with ICI (ischemic-cervical insufficiency), the cervix is shortened, then by the 15th week, as a rule, certain measures are already taken to maintain pregnancy.
One woman is shown full bed rest in a hospital setting, another has a pessary installed or sutures on the cervix. If the insufficiency of the neck is unexpressed, then the woman is allowed to lead a habitual lifestyle, only not to lift weights and not to burden herself.
If there is a diagnosis such as the central nervous system, regardless of the method of treatment proposed by the doctor, the woman should remember that the greatest danger for her is uterine hypertonicity - the cervix may not be able to withstand, and then a miscarriage will begin. Determining the tone of the uterus is quite simple - the abdomen becomes hard, almost "stone", pulls the lower back.
Adrenal cortical dysfunction
If a woman has previously had problems with the condition and functioning of the adrenal cortex, right now she may feel worse. This is possible provided that she carries a boy. Testosterone, which is produced in a baby, enters the blood of a future mother, and if there are difficulties with the adrenal glands and your own testosterone is exceeded, an excess of this hormone may occur.
Women who have this problem should visit their doctor this week and give urine for 17-KS (analysis for the content of 17-ketosteroids).
The uterus grows and squeezes the intestines, which leads to constipation, while the pressure on the inferior vena cava increases.Together, all these factors often lead to the fact that a woman manifests hemorrhoids. This unpleasant disease associated with impaired blood flow in the hemorrhoidal veins necessarily requires treatment.
It is not necessary to treat hemorrhoids during pregnancy with folk remedies, it is best to consult a doctor, do not be shy, tell about the problem and get an appointment. In the second trimester, the list of drugs that are allowed to relieve the symptoms of hemorrhoids, compared with the beginning of pregnancy, is expanding significantly, the doctor will definitely select an effective and harmless drug.
Maintain a good mood and positive mood. This is very important, because the baby already subtly feels all the changes in his mother’s mood. Perinatal psychologists say that right now - in the fourth month of gestation - a basic understanding of the baby is laid, it is decided whether he will be an optimist or a pessimist. To increase the baby’s chances of becoming an optimist, it is important for a woman to monitor her emotions, protect herself from communication, which brings negativity, from stress and anxiety.
Now is the best time to watch and review good films, fairy tales, favorite cartoons, read good and interesting books, start reading magazines and books for young parents, telling about the intricacies of caring for a child.
Women who proudly demonstrate their rounded tummy to others should not forget that clothes should not be too tight, pressure in the belt, in the hips. Such things can disturb blood circulation. You should not wear things made of synthetic fabrics, the skin does not “breathe” in them, and sweating in pregnant women is increased regardless of the season of the year.
Women who are unpleasant when their tummy is closely examined in public transport or on the street should wear loose and spacious things, they can still hide an “interesting position”, and to divert attention from the abdomen, you should choose a beautiful bright scarf, hat, noticeable beads - at the sight of a pregnant belly much less attention will be paid.
With falling asleep at this time, usually there are no more problems, as the hormonal background stabilizes, sleep improves. But many women have very real problems with a posture for sleeping at week 15, because it becomes uncomfortable to sleep on the back, the uterus presses, and you can’t lie down on your stomach.
It is important for a woman now to learn to sleep on her side. To make sleep more comfortable now and then, at a later date, special pillows for pregnant women can help, which can be wrapped around your legs and on which a large and heavy belly fits comfortably in the third trimester.
Antenatal bandage is not a whim and not a medical prescription, if indicated, although sometimes it can not be dispensed with with certain complications of pregnancy. A bandage is an effective way to facilitate the period of bearing a child. Already, a woman can visit the nearest orthopedic salon and choose a convenient device that will carefully fix the stomach, support it from below, easing the load on the legs and back.
Sexual relations at week 15 are not contraindicated unless the doctor has a different opinion on this matter. With cervical insufficiency, with some other pathologies of pregnancy, sex is not recommended, but if everything goes well and the doctor does not mind, then the spouses can not limit themselves to pleasures. It is important not to forget that deep penetration poses are now undesirable, as well as the use of warming or cooling lubricants.
A woman, if she is not prescribed bed rest, can lead a habitual life at 15 weeks, take walks, do gymnastics, do swimming, yoga. It is important to remember that you cannot be in the same position for too long.If the work of the future mother is associated with sitting or standing in one place, it should be a rule to do five-minute pause-workouts to establish blood circulation, relieve stress on the legs, tailbone, lower back.
Many mothers describe the 15th week as the best time for the entire pregnancy, because now it is still very easy and already quite calm. Many pregnant women have just started diaries in which they enter the results of self-weighing, menus, note the first movements, if they have already occurred, or are just preparing to make such an exciting record.
Only a small number of pregnant women at this period begin to attend special courses where theory and practice go together - a woman learns a lot about her pregnancy, as well as about the upcoming birth and caring for a newborn. These courses are valid at every antenatal clinic.
If possible, it is better not to postpone their visit to the prenatal period, but sign up now. This, according to experienced mothers, helps to more thoroughly prepare for the upcoming replenishment in the family.
About what happens to the fetus and the expectant mother at the 15th week of pregnancy, see the next video.